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They also give a voice to groups of people who have frequently been marginalised treatment norovirus order kytril online now, particularly women and those from the Global South medications similar buspar order genuine kytril on line. This approach is based upon the ideas of Karl Marx symptoms 7 days after iui best purchase for kytril, who lived in the nineteenth century at the height of the industrial revolution symptoms 2dpo kytril 2mg for sale. The proletariat are at the mercy of the bourgeoisie who control their wages and therefore their standard of living. Marx hoped for the overthrow of the bourgeoisie by the proletariat and an eventual end to the class society. Critical theorists who take a Marxist angle often argue that the organisation of international politics around the state has led to ordinary people around the globe becoming divided and alienated, instead of recognising what they all have in common ­ potentially ­ as a global proletariat. For this to change, the legitimacy of the state must be questioned and ultimately dissolved. In that sense, emancipation from the state in some form is often part of the wider critical agenda. Postcolonialism differs from Marxism by focusing on the inequality between nations or regions, as opposed to classes. The effects of colonialism are still felt in many regions of the world today as local populations continue to deal with the challenges created and left behind by ex-colonial powers such as the United Kingdom and France. Crucially, postcolonial scholars have argued that analyses based on Western theoretical perspectives, or that do not take into account the perspectives of those in former colonies, may lead international institutions and world leaders to take actions that unfairly favour the West. They have created a deeper understanding of the way in which the operations of the global economy, the decision-making processes of international institutions and the actions of the great powers might actually constitute new Getting Started with International Relations Theory 8 forms of colonialism. Another theory that exposes the inequality inherent in international relations is feminism. Feminism entered the field in the 1980s as part of the emerging critical movement. It focused on explaining why so few women seemed to be in positions of power and examining the implications of this on how global politics was structured. How have certain characteristics traditionally viewed as masculine ­ such as aggression, emotional detachment and strength ­ come to be seen as essential qualities of a world leader? Which qualities and characteristics does this exclude (it might be empathy and cooperation) and what kind of actions does this result in? By recognising that gender ­ the roles that society constructs for men and women ­ permeates everything, feminism challenges those roles in a way that benefits everyone. Rather, feminists ask how gendered power structures make it difficult for women or men who display supposedly feminine traits to reach the highest levels of power. Given that those positions involve making life and death decisions, it matters to all of us whether the person who gets there is known for their aggression or their compassion. With all this talk of socially constructed gender roles, you might be beginning to see some overlaps ­ with constructivism, for example. Poststructuralism questions the dominant narratives that have been widely accepted by mainstream theories. For instance, liberals and realists both accept the idea of the state and for the most part take it for granted. So, although these two theoretical perspectives may differ in some respects with regard to their overall worldviews, they share a general understanding of the world. Neither theory seeks to challenge the existence 9 International Relations Theory of the state; they simply count it as part of their reality. Poststructuralism seeks to question these commonly held assumptions of reality, not just the state but also more widely the nature of power. What this means is that people in a position of power, including politicians, journalists, even scholars, have the ability to shape our common understandings of a given issue. In turn, these understandings of the issue can become so ingrained that they appear to be common sense and it becomes difficult to think outside of them, leaving room for only certain kinds of action. By analysing the way in which a certain understanding of an issue becomes dominant, poststructuralists aim to expose the hidden assumptions it is based upon. They also aim to open up other possible ways of being, thinking and doing in international politics. Indeed, beyond the theories explored above are many other theories and perspectives that you will find in the expansion pack section of this book.


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Caregivers/teachers who prepare food should wash their hands carefully before handling any food medicine go down 1mg kytril with mastercard, regardless of whether they change diapers treatment 4 toilet infection purchase kytril overnight. When caregivers/teachers must handle food medications that cause hyponatremia cheap kytril 1mg with amex, staffing assignments should be made to foster completion of the food handling activities by caregivers/teachers of older children medicine omeprazole cheap kytril 2 mg on line, or by caregivers/teachers of infants and toddlers before the caregiver/teacher assumes other caregiving duties for that day. Aprons worn in the food service area must be clean and should be removed when diaper changing or when using the toilet. Frequent and proper handwashing before and after using plastic gloves reduces food contamination (1,2,4). Caregivers/teachers who work with infants and toddlers are frequently exposed to feces and to children with infections of the intestines (often with diarrhea) or of the liver. Education of child care staff regarding handwashing and other cleaning procedures can reduce the occurrence of illness in the group of children with whom they work (1,2,4). The possibility of involving a larger number of people in a foodborne outbreak is greater in child care than in most households. Cooking larger volumes of food requires special caution to avoid contamination of the food with even small amounts of infectious materials. With larger volumes of food, staff must exercise greater diligence to avoid contamination because larger quantities of food take longer to heat or to cool to safe temperatures. Larger volumes of food spend more time in the danger zone of temperatures (between 41°F and 135°F) where more rapid multiplication of microorganisms occurs (3). The following precautions should be observed for a safe food supply: a) Home-canned food; food from dented, rusted, bulging, or leaking cans, and food from cans without labels should not be used; b) Foods should be inspected daily for spoilage or signs of mold, and foods that are spoiled or moldy should be promptly and appropriately discarded; c) Meat should be from government-inspected sources or otherwise approved by the governing health authority (3); d) All dairy products should be pasteurized and Grade A where applicable; e) Raw, unpasteurized milk, milk products; unpasteurized fruit juices; and raw or undercooked eggs should not be used. If costsaving is required to accommodate a tight budget, dry milk and milk products may be reconstituted in the facility for cooking purposes only, provided that they are prepared, refrigerated, and stored in a sanitary manner, labeled with the date of preparation, and used or discarded within twenty-four hours of preparation; g) Meat, fish, poultry, milk, and egg products should be refrigerated or frozen until immediately before use (5); h) Frozen foods should be defrosted in one of four ways: In the refrigerator; under cold running water; as part of the cooking process, or by removing food from packaging and using the defrost setting of a microwave oven (5). Note: Frozen human milk should not be defrosted in the microwave; i) Frozen foods should never be defrosted by leaving them at room temperature or standing in water that is not kept at refrigerator temperature (5); j) All fruits and vegetables should be washed thoroughly with water prior to use (5); 189 Chapter 4: Nutrition and Food Service Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards k) Food should be served promptly after preparation or cooking or should be maintained at temperatures of not less than 135°F for hot foods and not more than 41°F for cold foods (12); l) All opened moist foods that have not been served should be covered, dated, and maintained at a temperature of 41°F or lower in the refrigerator or frozen in the freezer, verified by a working thermometer kept in the refrigerator or freezer (12); m) Fully cooked and ready-to-serve hot foods should be held for no longer than thirty minutes before being served, or promptly covered and refrigerated; n) Pasteurized eggs or egg products should be substituted for raw eggs in the preparation of foods such as Caesar salad, mayonnaise, meringue, eggnog, and ice cream. Pasteurized eggs or egg products should be substituted for recipes in which more than one egg is broken and the eggs are combined, unless the eggs are cooked for an individual child at a single meal and served immediately, such as in omelets or scrambled eggs; or the raw eggs are combined as an ingredient immediately before baking and the eggs are fully cooked to a ready-to-eat form, such as a cake, muffin or bread; o) Raw animal foods should be fully cooked to heat all parts of the food to a temperature and for a time of; 145°F or above for fifteen seconds for fish and meat; 160°F for fifteen seconds for chopped or ground fish, chopped or ground meat or raw eggs; or 165°F or above for fifteen seconds for poultry or stuffed fish, stuffed meat, stuffed pasta, stuffed poultry or stuffing containing fish, meat or poultry. For children, a small dose of infectious or toxic material can lead to serious illness (13). Some molds produce toxins that may cause illness or even death (such as aflatoxin or ergot). Keeping cold food below 41°F and hot food above 135°F prevents bacterial growth (1,6,12). Food intended for human consumption can become contaminated if left at room temperature. Home-canned food, food from dented, rusted, bulging or leaking cans, or leaking packages/bags of frozen foods, have an increased risk of containing microorganisms or toxins. Users of unlabeled food cans cannot be sure what is in the can and how long the can has been stored. Excessive heating of foods results in loss of nutritional content and causes foods to lose appeal by altering color, consistency, texture, and taste. Positive learning activities for children, using their senses of seeing and smelling, help them to learn about the food they eat. Children are not only shortchanged of nutrients, but are denied the chance to use their senses fully to learn about foods. Caregivers/teachers should discourage parents/guardians from bringing home-baked items for the children to share as it is difficult to determine the quality of the ingredients used and the cleanliness of the environment in which the items are baked and transported. Parents/guardians should be informed why home baked items like birthday cake and cupcakes are not the healthiest choice and the facility should provide ideas for healthier alternatives such as fruit cups or fruit salad to celebrate birthdays and other festive events. These products have been implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis, listeriosis, toxoplasmosis, and campylobacteriosis and should never be served in child care facilities (7,8). Foods made with uncooked eggs have been involved in a number of outbreaks of Salmonella infections. Eggs should be well-cooked before being eaten, and only pasteurized eggs or egg substitutes should be used in foods requiring raw eggs. Soil particles and contaminants that adhere to fruits and vegetables can cause illness. Therefore, all fruits or vegetables to be eaten and used to make fresh juice at the facility should be thoroughly washed first. Storing perishable foods at safe temperatures in the refrigerator or freezer reduces the rate at which microorganisms in these foods multiply (12).

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The return cycle is equally complex including the types of payments used to acquire the commodities medicine during pregnancy generic 1mg kytril with amex, from cash to weapons and other goods medications causing thrombocytopenia buy kytril 2 mg on-line, the seller may need doctor of medicine order kytril us. This cycle relies on a specific group of individuals who act as facilitators in connecting different facets of the criminal and/ or terrorist networks of state and nonstate actors treatment 8 cm ovarian cyst order kytril 2mg visa. This chapter addresses this crucial role of a cohort of actors-"fixers," "super fixers," and "shadow facilitators"1-in empowering social networks that operate within illicit commodity chains. These commodity chains often span significant geographic space and require multiple steps, in multiple countries, to be successfully completed. One individual, or even one criminal and/or terrorist group, seldom has the capacity to operate throughout this complex landscape. Instead they must turn to specialized individuals, often primarily motivated by economic incentives rather than ideology, who can navigate specific links in that chain. These individuals are the crucial bridges among different worlds that do not usually overlap. The often isolated and relatively unsophisticated procurers of commodities (for example, coca leaf growers and cocaine laboratory operators in the Chapare, in central Bolivia, or warlords who control lucrative mines in the Democratic Republic of the Congo) do not have direct access to the markets for those commodities in Europe, the United States, and elsewhere. Those who can move the products often have no direct access to the money laundering, procurement, and transportation networks for the profits for those commodities. Payments are made not only with cash, but also with sophisticated weapons, chemicals, and other materials that need to be transported back to the source region or elsewhere. The value of identifying these players is that this serves to identify crucial points of vulnerability 75 Farah in disrupting multiple criminal activities simultaneously because the super fixers and shadow facilitators usually deal with more than one criminal network at a time. Eliminating them or removing them from operations can not only wound several networks with one blow, but also offer insight into the operations of multiple networks from an intelligence perspective. The first case is the relationship of Russian weapons trafficker Viktor Bout with Charles Taylor in Liberia, and the commodities-for-weapons trade in a highly criminalized state that had a significant impact on the conflicts in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This network enjoys growing support from the rapidly criminalizing Bolivarian states in the region, primarily Nicaragua and Venezuela. The benefits may be for a particular political movement, theocratic goals, terrorist operations, or personal gain of those involved, or a combination of these factors. This differs in important ways from the traditional look at "weak" or "failed" states, which assume that a government that is not exercising a positive presence and fulfilling certain basic functions (public security, education, infrastructure) does not represent a functioning state. In fact, such states can be highly efficient at the functions they choose to perform, particularly if they participate in an ongoing criminal enterprise. By choice, their weakness exists in the fields of positive state functions that are traditionally thought of as essentially sovereign functions, but not in other important areas. One can understand the complexities of illicit trade best by viewing the pieces or nodes as part of a series of recombinant chains with links that can merge and decouple as necessary, rather than by looking at the purchase or exchange of commodities for cash or other goods as a series of individual transactions. The flow of goods and cash for those goods is not linear, but circular (figure 1). In Liberia, for example, timber and diamonds flowed out through interrelated networks to different markets, while weapons, uniforms, food, and fuel flowed back through a trusted group of super fixers. In the cocaine trade, the drugs flow from South America to markets in the United States and Europe, often through the same channels as illicitly moving human beings, contraband, and other drugs such as marijuana. The return flow brings bulk cash, weapons, precursor chemicals, aircraft, and other products necessary to keep the business functioning. The transient and sometimes fungible nature of these pipelines means they are often in flux and easily rerouted when obstacles arise in any part of the chain. Investigations usually offer a snapshot of what has taken place rather than a moving picture of how they are evolving. Circular Flow of Goods and Cash Warlord Control Goods and Cash Commodity Sale Facilitators Brokers the "Fixer" Chain Illicit networks often develop in times of conflict or in the absence of a positive state presence,8 where multiple porous borders and disdain for the often predatory and/or corrupt state have led to smuggling routes that have often endured for generations. These historic routes, in turn, engender the accompanying "cultures of contraband"9 -particularly in border regions-that often lead to violence and the acceptance of illicit smuggling activities as a legitimate livelihood. For example, one of the primary routes to move cocaine across Honduras into El Salvador for onward movement to Mexico is controlled by the Cartel de Texis, named for the town of Texistepeque, where some of its leaders come from. Its operational territory along the Honduran border includes the once famous ruta del queso or "cheese route" used to smuggle Honduran 77 Farah cheese into El Salvador at the turn of the 20th century, a smuggling route that has endured for a hundred years. So they, in turn, had to rely on "super fixers" to move the diamonds to the international market. As will be examined below, Taylor had a small core of trusted super fixers who could move in the broader world, operate bank accounts, and seek out connections but did not have the capacity to actually provide and move the products he wanted.


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