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Chapter 8 Spacing breast cancer questions buy 2mg ginette-35 otc, Movements menstrual 7 days late buy generic ginette-35 pills, and Orientation 235 assessing the quality of other areas in the river pregnancy rash cheap ginette-35. Other individuals maintain approximately the same home range year after year women's health clinic mandurah best order for ginette-35, even when the habitat structure changes. Home ranges of male Sceloporus jarrovi are twice the size of female home ranges and increase in average size as the fall breeding season commences. The increase in male home range size is due partially to a 50% reduction in male density from summer to fall and an increase in the proportion of the home range defended by reproductive males. By the peak of the breeding season, males defend the entire home range; during this time, the home range and territory are the same. In most species, home range size generally decreases as food availability or density increases. In at least one instance, the local climate places constraints on lizard activity that feed back on the amount of space used 1000 800 600 400 200 females 0 May June males by individuals. As in Sceloporus jarrovi, home ranges of male Sceloporus merriami are larger than those of females, but geographically close populations vary greatly in home range size. This lizard occurs across an elevational gradient in the Chisos Mountains of west Texas. Populations at higher elevations experience a much more mesic environment than those at low elevations. Males and females at the lowest elevations at Boquillas have much smaller home ranges than individuals at higher elevations, even though food availability is lowest and lizard density is highest at Boquillas. Although it appears paradoxical that lizard density could be high with low food availability, an interaction between reproductive, microhabitat, and energetic requirements accounts for the small home ranges. The environment at Boquillas is the most extreme (high temperatures, low rainfall) along the elevational gradient, and as a result, the amount of time available to each lizard for activity is reduced. Feeding rates of Boquillas lizards are low, suggesting that energy is more limited compared with higher-elevation populations. High temperature also limits activity, and with food already in short supply, the lizards further limit their activity, which reduces home range size. Reduced activity coupled with low food availability ultimately feeds back on allocation of energy for reproduction and results in lower reproductive output. In contrast, lizards that actively search for prey would be expected to have large home ranges. Boquillas, the site with the most extreme (hot and dry) environment, imposes thermal constraints on lizard activity, resulting in small home ranges. The Australian elapid, Hoplocephalus bungaroides, centers its home range around retreat sites in rocky outcrops and tree hollows and remains inactive most of the time. Females carrying eggs move less than do nonreproductive females or males and as a result have smaller home ranges. Home range size in males and females varies among years, apparently in response to the relative abundance of their mammalian prey. Freshwater environments offer special challenges in terms of space use for amphibians and reptiles, not only because of their three-dimensional nature, but also because they fluctuate depending on rainfall or drought. Aquatic snakes and turtles often have relatively large home ranges, and their home ranges can change seasonally. During particularly dry years, their entire area of activity can shift if a pond or stream dries. Surprisingly, one of the larger aquatic (marine) turtles, Chelonia mydas, has one of the smallest home ranges once they settle in an area to feed. These turtles create a submarine pasture and focus their grazing in that small area. In contrast, another sea turtle, Dermochelys coriaceae, appears to move constantly, tracking the seasonal blooms of its jellyfish prey. The Sonoran mud turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense) lives in rivers, streams, and man-made impoundments in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona and northern Mexico and, even though abundant in many areas, is often missed by people observing wildlife. These turtles spend much of their time under rocks or other objects under water in their habitats and tend to move at night.
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Occasionally women's health big book of exercises skinny jeans workout buy 2 mg ginette-35 with mastercard, tumors contain small numbers of ganglionlike cells characterized by abundant women's health qld cheap generic ginette-35 canada, angular cytoplasm and large menstruation with large blood clots buy cheap ginette-35 2 mg, eccentric menopause the musical buy generic ginette-35 online, often hyperchromatic nuclei. Lowgrade or well-differentiated melanomas also occur; these have a lower mitotic index, and architectural and cytologic features of malignancy may be subtle. The cytoplasm of most melanoma cells is pale and the degree of pigmentation varies from abundant to undetectable both within a given neoplasm and amongst neoplasms. No consistent degree or pattern of melanin pigmentation occurs within a given melanoma. The abundance of melanin granules in some melanomas tends to obscure nuclear features; thus, bleaching of the tissue section with potassium permanganate or oxalic acid may be required to evaluate cellular and nuclear morphology. The cytoplasm of amelanotic melanomas often has a gray or muddy purplish-gray, granular quality. Although a specific cell type may predominate, most tumors will exhibit a mixture of spindle cells, round to polygonal cells, and/or epithelioid cells. Round to polygonal and epithelioid cells tend to have moderate to abundant melanin, but may be sparsely pigmented in amelanotic forms. The primary differential diagnosis of dermal melanoma is melanocytoma, particularly for smaller neoplasms. Nests and trabeculae of darkly pigmented, polygonal melanocytes are interspersed with zones of well-differentiated cartilage. A predominance of epithelioid tumor cells, multinucleated melanocytes, and prominent tumor necrosis indicate malignancy of melanocytic tumors in cats (Goldschmidt et al. Identification of the proliferation index and the growth fraction also assists in differentiating between melanocytomas and melanomas (see immunohistochemistry, below) (Roels et al. Dermal amelanotic melanomas that are composed of round melanocytes should be differentiated from leukocytic round cell tumors, including nonepitheliotropic lymphomas, plasma cell tumors, poorly granulated mast cell tumors, transmissible venereal tumors and Merkel cell tumors. In particular, plasma cell tumors, and Merkel cell tumors may most closely mimic amelanotic melanomas as these are usually characterized by packeting and nesting of tumor cells. In contrast to amelanotic melanomas, transmissible venereal tumors have finely vacuolated tumor cells. The intraepidermal component is composed predominantly of epithelioid melanocytes arranged individually or in nests and clusters. Polygonal poorly pigmented cells are arranged in sheets and nests, and have vacuolated and granular cytoplasm. Intraepidermal melanocytes often contain more melanin pigment than the cells of the dermal component. In one dog with junctional melanoma, the authors observed purely intraepidermal accumulations of neoplastic melanocytes in additional biopsies. Large, round, poorly pigmented melanocytes were seen as single cells and as aggregates throughout the epidermis (pagetoid distribution). These features are characteristic of superficial spreading melanoma in humans (Rosai, 1996). The melanocytic origin of these cells was confirmed with immunohistochemistry (see below). The authors also observed a small lesion in a dog consistent with lentigo maligna in humans (Rosai, 1996). The differential diagnoses for pigmented melanomas with junctional activity mirror those of dermal melanomas (see above). The differential diagnoses for amelanotic melanomas with junctional activity include epitheliotropic T cell lymphoma and canine cutaneous histiocytoma with intraepidermal tumor cell aggregates. Most melanomas with junctional activity have some melanin pigmentation, which helps to differentiate them from round cell tumors with intraepidermal tumor cell aggregates.
During the evolutionary history of amphibians and reptiles menstrual headaches symptoms purchase ginette-35 without prescription, any morphological breast cancer kd shoes order ginette-35 2mg free shipping, physiological breast cancer blogs order ginette-35 2 mg free shipping, behavioral menopause nausea order ginette-35 master card, or ecological trait that reduced predation increased in frequency as individuals not exhibiting those traits were removed from the breeding population. Selective pressures driving the evolution of predator-escape mechanisms were and continue to be strong because as prey respond evolutionarily to predictable predation events, predators respond by evolving new or more effective ways to find and capture prey. The diversity of predator-escape mechanisms in amphibians and reptiles continues to surprise herpetologists; new defenses continually are being discovered. Many mechanisms are obvious, such as alert responses followed by rapid flight or the loss of tails by salamanders and lizards that allow the prey a second chance at escape. Many are much more subtle and include rapid development of amphibian eggs and tadpoles to offset predation by aquatic insect larvae or the evolution of large clutches of small eggs to offset heavy and random predation on early life history stages. In several families of ant-eating frogs, chemicals obtained from the diet are mobilized and used in defense. In viperid, elapid, and some colubrid snakes, injected venoms used to acquire prey serve to fend off or even kill potentially lethal predators. In nature, predator escape is much more complex because the diversity and abundance of predators is not constant in space or time, and the complement of potential predators changes depending on the life history stage of the prey. Trade-offs associated with reproduction, social behavior, and activity can influence both the evolution of escape mechanisms and the manner in which predator escape might take place. Most amphibians and reptiles employ several different predator-escape mechanisms, often using different ones during different life history stages. A considerable amount of effort has been made to refine and test optimal escape theory, mostly by William E. Largely because of the ease with which they can be studied, lizards have dominated in attempts to test escape theory. If the cost of escaping (dashed line) is high for an individual, for example a lizard that is a long distance from refuge, then the animal should take lower risk when confronted by a predator by seeking refuge sooner or when the predator is farther away. If an individual is close to a safe refuge, then both cost to seek refuge and risk of being captured are low and the animal can allow the predator to approach more closely. The relationship of risk curves (solid lines) to cost curves should determine response of prey. In general, this relationship should hold for nearly all kinds of escape behaviors and risk factors, and theoretical predictions apply to both predator and prey behaviors. Of course, this is highly simplified compared with the natural world, in which multiple risk factors and costs are involved. Intersection of these curves indicates that the relationship of risk to cost can vary considerably, and again this is highly simplified. Finally, the first two examples show escape cost increasing linearly with distance from a predator and risk decreasing in a curvilinear fashion with increasing distance between predator and prey. However, because of the interplay between different potential risk and cost factors, risk and/or cost curves may not be monotonic, and thus several optima with respect to cost and risk may exist. In this example, cost is shown to be nonmonotonic and three optimal solutions exist. Optimal escape theory applies to numerous attributes of escape behavior, including flight-initiation distance, directness of approach, and emergence from refuges as illustrated above. Similar decisions must be made by animals when approached by predators, as when they reinitiate activity following escape. A simple example might be a snake that first entered a crevice after detecting attempted predation by a hawk. The cost of entering and remaining in the crevice includes reduced foraging or access to mates, but the cost of coming out, which should decrease with time, could be sudden death by the hawk that may have remained in the area. From top: A striped racer (Masticophis taeniatus) eating an adult greater earless lizard (Cophosaurus texanus) (photograph by J. Howland); a leopard lizard (Gambelia wislizenii) eating a long-tailed brush lizard (Urosaurus graciosus) (photograph by C.
Clutch size is very small womens health jacksonville nc order ginette-35 with a mastercard, about three eggs that are deposited above the waterline on the wall of a tiny tree or vine hole in the Amazonian rainforest breast cancer hormone therapy cheap ginette-35 2 mg fast delivery. Because the tadpoles are cannibalistic pregnancy emotions buy 2 mg ginette-35 with visa, they are not allowed to drop into the water in the same tree hole menstrual gif order ginette-35 american express, where a larger tadpole may be present. The male and female court about every 5 days; the female then ovulates two eggs, one from each ovary. The male guides her to the tree hole containing one of their tadpoles, and the female deposits the trophic (unfertilized) eggs for the tadpole to consume. In the aromobatid Anomaloglossus beebei, an individual male and female form a pair bond, and both parents provide care for the tadpoles. The male parent cares for the eggs by moistening them and transports the tadpoles, whereas the female parent occasionally deposits trophic eggs for the tadpoles. In this species, the larval habitat is a small amount of water held in the leaf axils of Heliconia plants. Cannibalism is common among the tadpoles and may provide a significant source of nutrients for the tadpoles. The factors driving these two systems appear related to aspects of the larval habitat. Monogamy and biparental care have also been reported in the hylid Osteocephalus oophagus. In this Amazonian rainforest species, an amplectant pair deposits a clutch of about 250 eggs in a tree hole. As the tadpoles develop, the same male and female return about every 5 days and deposit more fertilized eggs for the developing tadpoles to consume. Eggs continue to be deposited in the same tree hole, but not all of them are consumed by the older tadpoles, and these uneaten eggs hatch into more tadpoles. The result is that tadpoles of different sizes are present in a pool; generally the smaller ones are unable to obtain trophic eggs and die. Oophagy is obligatory in this species; if the parents do not regularly provide trophic eggs, the tadpoles starve. Reptile Mating Systems Snakes Most snakes are considered to have polygynous mating systems, and a few are effectively monogamous. In polygynous snakes, males gain in terms of the offspring they sire by mating with more than a single female. Females maximize production of offspring by mating with a single male and investing time and energy in efficient foraging to gain the benefits associated with increased energy intake, which include a fecundity increase related to body size and condition. Prairie rattlesnakes, Crotalus viridis, are polygynous, and females are sexually receptive for only short periods of time, partly because they are nonreceptive during the extended gestation period. Female body size and the availability of food and heat to females influence the frequency of reproduction. Taken together, these factors result in a variable operational sex ratio; more males than females are available to breed at any one time. Recent evidence of multiple paternity within clutches or litters of individual females of four snake species in three families suggests that snakes may Chapter 9 Communication and Social Behavior 279 low Female reproductive cycles/year 1. Reproductive success is influenced by body size because it determines the number of offspring produced in a given season. Polyandry appears to be quite common, and may have been the ancestral condition in snakes. Because so few species have been studied in any detail, generalizations are tenuous at best. Nevertheless, males of some snake species appear to choose females rather than the other way around. Lizards Most lizards are considered to have polygynous mating systems, but monogamy or at least extended pair bonding and polyandry (based on multiple paternity within clutch/ litter) are more common than previously thought (Table 9. Among iguanians, males of most species defend at least part of their home range (see Chapter 8), and polygynous mating systems predominate. In some species, territorial males mate with only one or two females, whereas in others, individual males may mate with as many as six females.
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